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NEW PLYMOUTH PROVINCE, NEW ZEALAND. (From a Correspondent.) Within the limits of the New Plymouth Province, in New Zealand, there are from 900 to 1000 natives, residing in twenty villages, or kanigas. The district in which these natives live extends from the Sugar-loaf Islands, two miles south of the town, to Waitaira (including both banks of the river), twelve miles north of the town. Five-sixths of the natives can read and write in their own language, and some few of the young men have a very good knowledge of arithmetic. In fact, all the natives, except the very old and the very young, are, to some extent, educated. Some 700 of them are under the care of Mr. Turton, Wesleyan missionary, who has done preaching services at all the villages, more or less, in turn; and before the unfortunate disturbances took place he had great hopes that good was being done. The native war has greatly retarded the progress of good among them. No danger is anticipated to the settlers of New Plymouth through this native war, provided that they keep themselves aloof from the quarrel and maintain a strict neutrality. It is lamentable to reflect on such disturbances and loss of life and property among the New Zealanders. They are but a miserable remnant of a formerly numerous population. In the days of Captain Cook the natives were fourfold the number they are now; but war, cannibalism, infanticide, &c., have made havoc among them. There are not now more than 50,000 natives in the whole country: these exist, as near as can be ascertained, in the following proportions:— 100 males. 75 females. 50 children. It would seem by these statistical numbers that they are in a fair way of becoming extinct as a people, and every philanthropist cannot but regret that they should be so determined to hasten this consummation by their own folly. The accompanying View shows part of the town of New Plymouth, looking south-west from the upper end of Devon-street. It comprehends, perhaps, one-third of the occupied part of the town. Some of the chief stores are in the foreground. The low buildings to the right, enclosed in a fence, are a portion of the native houses or pa. On the hill in front, Mount Eliot, are the tents of the detachment of the 58th Regiment, which, at the date of the Sketch, had just landed from the Duke of Portland troopship, at anchor in the offing. The mail-steamer Zingari, coming up from the south, is signalled to the town from the flagstaff, by a large flag which is flying from the masthead. Right over Mount Eliot are the summits of two islands, which give the native name Nga Motu (the Islands) to the place. The lofty sugar-loaf peak in the distance, in the centre of the Sketch, is a singular formation, rising abruptly from the low ground, and abutting close on the shore. Its native name is Pari tutu (the Cliff of Disobedience). There are about 2000 English settlers, chiefly from Devonshire and Cornwall, in the town, and adjacent country: perhaps 800 are resident in the town; and the rest are scattered two or three miles inland, and six miles to the north, and as far as twelve miles to the south. The natives are faithfully represented by the four or five in the foreground. The two men standing have the native hani, or staff, about five feet in length generally, which they now use as a walking -stick; but formerly, before they obtained the musket and bullet, it was a favourite war weapon. On the rising ground, close to the post and rail fence, are seated some native women. We regret to find that native disturbances have again broken out, and that a serious conflict between two hostile tribes has already taken place. It appears that on the 16th of last month a fight took place at the Waitaira, near Taranaki, between the party of Katatore and that of Adam Clarke, resulting in the death, of five or six men on the side of the former, and two on that of the latter, with a great many wounded of both parties. Of the dead on Katatore's side, one was a great chief belonging to a powerful southern tribe; and it is the general belief that great numbers will immediately come up to avenge his death. The flame which for a while was smothered would seem, indeed, to have broken out afresh: both parties are under arms, and only wait for reinforcements to come again into collision. The military remain in town, and do not interfere with the contending parties. The settlers, we are glad to find, do not entertain serious apprehensions on their own account. — Australian and New-Zealand Gazette